Ancient History

The sea dogs, as they were disparagingly called by the Spanish authorities, were privateers who, with the consent and sometimes financial support of Elizabeth I of England (r. 1558-1603 CE), attacked and plundered Spanish colonial settlements and treasure ships in the second half of the 16th century CE. With only a license from their queen to distinguish them from pirates, mariners like... [...]
Fri, Jul 03, 2020
Source: Ancient History Encyclopedia
Qeiyafa Ostracon and Gezer Calendar

Christopher Rollston examines the Qeiyafa Ostracon, Gezer Calendar and other inscriptions in a search for the oldest Hebrew script and language.

In the BAR article “What's the Oldest Hebrew Inscription,”* epigraphy scholar Christopher Rollston asks a seemingly straightforward question: What is the oldest Hebrew inscription? His examination requires him to address the fundamental questions of epigraphy. Is a text written in Hebrew script necessarily in the Hebrew [...]

Fri, Jul 03, 2020
Source: Biblical Archeology Daily
Persian Period Bulla

Photo: Israel Antiquities Authority

After King Nebuchadnezzar II attacked Jerusalem and destroyed the First Temple in 586 B.C.E., the Jews were exiled in Babylon for some 50 years. At that time, according to the books of Ezra and Nehemiah in the Hebrew Bible, Cyrus the Great became King of Persia and enabled the Jews to return to Jerusalem and to rebuild the Temple.

Few artifacts have been found from the [...]

Thu, Jul 02, 2020
Source: Ancient Cultures

What do we know about the history of crucifixion? In the following article, “New Analysis of the Crucified Man,” Hershel Shanks looks at evidence of Roman crucifixion methods as analyzed from the remains found in Jerusalem of a young man crucified in the first century A.D. The remains included a heel bone pierced by a large nail, giving archaeologists, osteologists and anthropologists evidence of crucifixion in antiquity.

Crucifixion in antiquity was a gruesome execution, not really [...]

Wed, Jul 01, 2020
Source: Biblical Archeology Daily

Read Trevor Bryce's article “The Last Days of Hattusa” as it originally appeared in Archaeology Odyssey, January/February 2005.—Ed.

A helmeted god stands guard over one of the principal entrances to ancient Hattusa. From the 17th to the early 12th century B.C., Hattusa served as the capital of the Hittite empire. Credit: Gianni Dagli Orti/Corbis.

From his capital, Hattusa, in central Anatolia, the last-known Hittite king, Suppiluliuma II (1207 B.C.-?), ruled over a [...]

Tue, Jun 30, 2020
Source: Ancient Cultures

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